Additive Manufacturing, also referred to as 3D Printing, is a technology that produces three-dimensional parts layer by layer from a material, be it polymer or metal-based.

Annealing is a process of treating metal by heating it and maintaining it above its recrystallization temperature.

Austempering is a heat treatment that produces a ductile, stable bainitic structure in steel applications.

Vacuum brazing is a versatile joining process where metal workpieces bond together in an oxygen-free protective atmosphere to form a single component.

Carburizing is a process of controlled diffusion of carbon into the surface of a component, followed by quenching and tempering

Debinding is a critical step in metal injection molding (MIM) processing and additive manufacturing.

Hardening is a metallurgical process for increasing the hardness of metals by thermal transformation (quench and temper)

Controlled nitriding/nitrocarburizing imparts a high surface hardness which results in a higher resistance to wear, scuffing, galling, seizure, and an improvement in corrosion.

Normalizing is a relatively simple process, but its parameters depend greatly on the type of steel and the desired result.

Age hardening or precipitation hardening (also known as aging) is a change in material properties (generally hardening) effected by holding parts at moderately elevated temperatures, without any change in the chemistry of the alloy.

Sintering is the process of compacting, welding together, and forming a solid mass of material from small particles without melting.

Conventional or vacuum tempering is almost always required after hardening to reduce the hardness and brittleness to a desirable level.