In the event that in a heat-treating operation the components suffered from decarburization (loss of carbon content) of the surfac

Hardening is one of the oldest metallurgical processes known to man, originally in the form of heating a sword in the fire and then throwing it into the lake to make it harder.

Tempering is almost always required after hardening (both in an atmosphere furnace as well as in vacuum, as described further)

The main purpose will usually be an improvement and homogenization of the grain structure.

As the name of the process clearly indicates, Stress Relieving is used to reduce the residual stresses in the microstructure